CadastreTeaching CAD / GIS

The role of geotechnologies in the conformation of a 3D Cadastre

On Thursday November 29, as Geofumadas with 297 attendees we participated in a webinar promoted by UNIGIS  under the theme: "The role of geotechnologies in the conformation of a 3D Cadastre” by Diego Erba, who explained the important relationship between geotechnologies and the 3D cadastre. The article was covered by Lau, a collaborator of Geofumadas, with whom in the afternoon we reviewed her impressions, her findings and also the review of the content because UNIGIS He has hung it for those who missed it.

Listening to Erba requires an open mind towards a vision of the urgent present in developed countries, and a medium-term vision in the countries for whom this declaration of Cadastre 2034 does not represent fear of what can be done; but rather because of the implication in the management of change, decision-making and economic implications in a context where debts for results towards the citizen are high in terms of providing better services based on territorial data. My collaborator, Lau has been very professional in summarizing the content of the Webinar; My comments appear as editor of in brown.

The webinar was developed based on the content of the book FIG-Best Practices 3D Cadastres, and began by explaining, how the 3D modeling can improve the cadastre, since it is involved in a strong technological revolution, which provides opportunities for spaces to introduce technology that promotes development, all without neglecting all the attributes that come from 2D data (maps, letters, plans).

Erba, emphasized that data collection processes should be simplified through free software such as  Scrappy, which is a framework application created to capture data and this data is stored on the web, leaving aside the use of paper as an archaic collection method.

Tremendous challenge, for decision makers. Of course, from the academic and visionary point of view it is a valid approach. However, when we see experiences like the Multipurpose Catastro of Colombia, where Trimble came with its wonderful Land Folio and PenMap, we come to the conclusion that connectivity and even stable electricity in rural areas is still a distant challenge. Web storage will still occupy a hybrid version between harvesting, syncing, and even some paper.

The approach must be considered taking into account that, although in the technological field we are still in a phase of transition between the 3D of visualization and the 5D of the operation, large cities of Latin America are in urgent need of adopting first world mechanisms, which they will be good practices for the road to smart cities.

He also indicated that we should start thinking about an 3D model, not only because of the technological revolution, but also because of the reality of space, because it is possible to better model spatial-structural dynamics. Through an example, the role of the 3D modeling could be visualized in the face of an adverse event such as earthquakes and the displacement of the structures could be calculated with respect to the terrain and the displacement of the land in terms of the structures.

He also showed the scientific studies carried out worldwide, which from the 2011 promote the use of the 3D modeling for the analysis of the space, besides inviting the listeners to the development of projects related to this topic, especially in Latin America.

The technological integration

To understand the technology involved in 3D modeling, according to the cadastre, it is necessary to answer the question of how to register a property in 3D, knowing that the unit associated with the cadastre originally was always the use of polygonal, how it is possible to register a property in 3D and what benefits have not been obtained with the traditional cadastre.

Well, in the first instance, the use of 3D technologies could be used to manage spaces, that is, to make descriptions of their shape, volume and location, as well as the types of surface where they are located.

Using modern remote sensors, it is possible to capture high volumes of data, including the generation of data, such as cloud points or point clouds, which are essential for the construction of 3D objects that promote the development of spatial databases.

We geomatics in developing countries must appropriate approaches like these, which, as I said above, are visionary and irreversible. As these things materialize, it is important to insist on processes; because although the capture tools have advanced, the functionalities of the software for their modification, with transactional control and successive tract to the previous information are limited. If adopting the ISO-19152 standard is still a complex challenge, between lowering the conceptual model to the physical model, with the topographic classes based on the point as the metadata storage unit; It is to be imagined if we wanted to go for three-dimensional modeling (not by visualization, nor capture, but by controlled administration).

I think the problem is not in adopting new visions. All institutions have specialized human resources, especially in matters of information analysis and technological development; but the difficulty is in coupling the missionary processes that not only focus on the data acquisition phase, but also require officialization of this new data reality, disposition and qualification criteria for other entities that will use the information, mechanisms of updating under transactional controls, and also the approach to the learning curve for actors who will participate in the provision of services to the citizen.

Those of us who have implemented integrated processes between Cadastre and Registry, are aware of the change management challenge that involves including in the qualification of a registrar, to view a map in a web viewer, which no longer has the neighboring areas described in writing, as they are visible in the dynamic technical description of the cadastral map and, which also reflects restrictions from the special regime norms coming from the territorial legislation. Now imagine that instead of a 2D plane you have to see a three-dimensional mesh with half-melted buildings in the best effort of Drone2Map or ContextCapture.

In the webinar it was said that before talking about the implementation of 3D cartography all over the world, it is necessary to apply the corresponding technologies to generate spatial representation models, such as geodes, since these are necessary to build and support the models adapted to the spatial reality. The construction of this model in many countries is practically nil, which is a serious problem when considering this type of cartographic representations, more advanced.

The legal part can not be left aside, knowing that the cadastre as such involves the legal - economic and natural physical environment. Depending on the legal framework associated with the cadastre in each city, the way in which the structures and spaces are treated will be determined, the case of Colombia-Brazil was discussed, where there is the sale of the construction right of the non-built spaces (red area) .

So what is the use of the 3D cadastre, as well as representing the existing volumetric, it will also be useful for what they called in the webinar as "superimposed situations", that is, to be able to solve problems related to restrictions, vertical superpositions (related to buildings) or infrastructures (pipes, cables, tunnels or pipes).

Starting from two premises:

  • Acquisition: that is, what exists, what there is, where it is how it looks.
  • Creation: create data through technologies such as BIM, and generate 3D modeling, which will then go through the rendering process that gives the object the appearance it has in reality.

What a pity to insist again; there does not end the management of land administration, but in the later phases of updating and integrating services to the actors linked to the transaction chain.

Contributions to geoengineering

During the exhibition, Erba showed examples of how the 3D models of certain basic services structures have been used, with which he indicated that these models represent a decision-making tool, since they are based on what exists, that is, they are visualize that there is, where there is and how it is, this could be the starting point of simulations that use this type of data to prevent any type of positive or negative event.

The cadastral parcel concept is then changed to object, the inclusion of the concept begins Voxel, something like the pixel counterpart, but in the 3D objects, "it is the minimum processable unit of a three-dimensional matrix". The concept of the economic 3D cadastre is also introduced, from which the virtual or Virtual Valuation, which constitutes a simulation with which a property is placed in a specific space, to determine certain characteristics according to its structure and its relationship with the immediate environment.

What can happen with Geographic Information Systems, and with the entire environment of systems created for spatial analysis? And more so now after establishing the generation of 3D data as a priority, as Erba said, that some professionals associated with the field indicate that it is the end of the vector data as it is known, that is, it is "The end of the polygon" as a basis for the association of data linked to cadastre", Which implies that the way in which they are being obtained, constructed and analyzed should be considered.

The inclusion of 3D data visualization and manipulation is not far from reality, applications such as ESRI's ArcGIS Pro, Bentley Systems DigitalTwins have included functionalities in this interface with respect to this data, QGIS has also been including add-ons for data management. pointclouds, so it generates an unknown as to what will happen with conventional GIS and other applications for spatial analysis, since the updates must be consistent with the imminent technological development, we will see in a few years, if there are modifications of free software that allow a wide range of functionalities for manipulating 3D data.

The question we must ask ourselves is, if our countries are working hand in hand with technological advances, the development of SmartCities is a fact that is just around the corner, and requires the greatest effort of technological integration, from modeling 3D even the relationship with the multiple existing sensors, plus the conception of the IoT - Internet of things, and the transmission of data through the cloud, is what transforms the city and the cadastre, taking them to be intelligent cities and smart cadastre.

This webinar was very interesting, considering the importance of the 3D-BIM-data modeling in the cloud-sensors for geoengineering, and also for all those who are getting into the handling of this type of information.

For my part, my respect to Diego Erba, for his tireless preaching of a vision beyond the immediate. What not to say about its warmth and particular dynamics of expressing smoked themes in the best possible version for mortals.

UNIGIS, beyond having that unbeatable offer of Online Master's Degree in Geographic Information SystemsWith these webinars you are supporting the formation of a community eager for content that add value to the sector. Although the numbers are cold, 95 Colombians, 37 Argentines, 35 Mexicans and 33 Ecuadorians represented two-thirds of the total participants of this webinar.

To wait for the next one.

Could not you attend the #Webinar of #UNIGIS with Diego Erba? Here is the link with the short record to see the # recording:

Golgi Alvarez

Writer, researcher, specialist in Land Management Models. He has participated in the conceptualization and implementation of models such as: National Property Administration System SINAP in Honduras, Management Model of Joint Municipalities in Honduras, Integrated Cadastre-Registry Management Model in Nicaragua, Territory Administration System SAT in Colombia . Editor of the Geofumadas knowledge blog since 2007 and creator of the AulaGEO Academy that includes more than 100 courses on GIS - CAD - BIM - Digital Twins topics.

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