Proposing how the land administration in 2034 could be does not seem like an easy idea, if we see how many changes have happened in the last 20 years. However, the exercise is a second attempt at what was already done 20 years before Cadastre 2014. Paying little attention to these statements may have cost someone, some institution or even an entire nation.
To think that in 2034 the cadastre will be elaborated and updated by the citizens of voluntary form sounds profane. But that's how the cartography update sounded before we knew OpenStreet Map, which is questioning whether a cartographic institute should exist or if that resource is used to promote collaborative mapping among students and we are dedicated only to normative actions, and updating of unavoidable basic inputs such as a consistent land model and updated satellite images more frequently.
Visions of Cadastre in a future of 20 years
The conceptual changes in Cadastre are usually more complex, since their uses are more strict than the mapping of other scales. Its connection to the legal, fiscal, economic aspects creates an interdependence not only in terms of information but also in processes. However, as well as the cartography could be dying at its best period of gloryAs the technology becomes more democratic and real-time information demands are created, the accuracy of the precision, the professional's signature and the flow of the methodology run the risk of not meeting the requirement of an irreversible demand. As an example, let's review how many encyclopedias that we have recently purchased from our children, they are using to do their daily tasks; or how many students stay in the school library to finish their work; In spite of the academic questions that the wikipedia has, its usability, collaborative update and compatibility with the Google search engine is sending whole libraries to the museums.
Another aspect to consider in the subject of cadastre is the fact that contextual conditions between countries are not equal in terms of priority. For European countries that already have a coverage of their property base at 100% at the national level and a standardized civil service career, modeling in three and four dimensions is urgent. Situation totally contrary in countries whose coverage 2D is still incomplete, the complete assumption is outdated and above all where political changes lead to the dismissal of a whole team of
professional experienced, who could lose their professionalism when carrying information on hard drives and -that does not cause us to laugh- to become part of a fire in the mayor's office that, among other interests, seeks to erase traces of corruption.
A vision of cadastre 20 years to future does not pretend to be a bet based on cabals or expositions against what exists. Rather it is an exercise grounded in the common sense of good practices already in use and the trends from which experts detect irreversible routes. But we must not rule out that the proposed trends could lead to the adoption of shortcuts; like the case of many contexts in Africa where the citizens went from not knowing the wire to the next generation mobile telephony. That is the reason why models such as Cadastre fit-for-purpose they are being included in the discourses of disruptive evangelization in this matter; by the existing demand of millions of properties that must be titled and the acceptance of a citizen in a mountain that prefers a title with a measure «more or less accurate»But where there are agreed boundaries with its neighbors; Instead of having nothing and waiting for another politician to offer something palpable.
A statement to 20 years in the hands of a - visionary fool - can make conceptualize a National System of Property Management, open to public consultation, with concepts of rights, restrictions and responsibilities before they come to be considered as a standard; -this madman- with normative advocacy capabilities and some tyranny is capable of erasing conventional methods if they do not guarantee efficiency in time, costs, traceability and transparency. When the defenders of conventional methods have the opportunity to react, this will have converted the formal advertising (certificate of tradition and freedom) into a current account of real property as the access that banks now offer, and will be thinking of getting out of the way. the intermediaries of the transaction through an Ali-express traceability window in real time.
But hey, while you identify such a madman in your country, I return to what was said in the first paragraph of this letter, that the 2034 Cadastre declarations are a second exercise of what was 2014 Cadastre, which I want to start talking about.
Before Cadastre 2014
The Cadastre is relatively new, compared to the Property Registry, which is based on codes that have been consolidated for many centuries on a basis of registry principles that transcend real, movable, commercial or intellectual law. The homologation of Cadastral purposes arrived late with changes of contextualized paradigms to the meaning of the land for the human being: conquests, wars, tributes, industrialization, computerization; additionally, the waves of evolution of economic models have brought information management techniques and improvement of the operation into a sensation that came to us as puzzle pieces.
The infographic summarizes the great paradigms that the Cadastre has had, in different epochs:
- Paradigm of the appraisal and the tax on land, with a priority of the land as wealth inherited from feudalism. It is not surprising that this approach has lasted so long in Latin America, considering that even after the independence of these countries of Spain, the economic model continued to be the adaptation of feudalism come with colonization. In the infographic this is the first piece of the puzzle, the tax cadastre as a basic application.
- Paradigm of the land market, with an evolution of comfort as meaning of the earth. This came with the industrial revolution between 1800 and 1950. Many of the classical foundations of the land continue to be based on this paradigm of the land market, hence the piece contributed at that time was the legal cadastre as an application complementary to the fiscal aspect.
- Paradigm of land administration, with a vision of the earth as a resource. This arose with the new visions of postwar reconstruction, just when many public institutions had interesting renovations, including Cadastre and Registry. These were important years for the Book-based Register, passing to media such as microfilm and, in the case of Cadastre, the influence of international resources supported the modernization of cadastral techniques, especially with national security interests associated with the Cold War. As a result, the economic cadastre piece modernizes valuation mechanisms that range from simplified models in Anglo-Saxon contexts to complexes based on replacement cost and depreciation curves that they persist until these days in many Latin American countries.
- Paradigm of sustainable development, with the earth as a limited common resource. This is born with the information revolution, at the beginning of the 80 decade, where the possibility of digital tools could replace the map and the digital file, assuming consultations and interrelation with other interested cadastral information. Similarly, the interest in an integration between Cadastre and Registry beyond the collaboration and exchange of data, the simplification towards the citizen through the integration of processes. The latter went from perversions that had to be collected all in sheet-size tokens «borges»Until ideas of putting a cable between Cadastre and Registry so that they were connected. Understanding that multifinity is in the integrality of the value chain of the land administration and not in the capture phase has been painful to this day; to the detriment of the citizen that what he expects is better services.
Land Registry 2014
In this last context Cadastro 2014 was born. In the mid-nineties, the International Federation of Geometry (FIG) makes one of its best bets to revitalize its role, supporting the initiative that raised how the Cadastre should be within the next 20 years. This leads to consider the best practices and trends that were being applied worldwide, for land administration; with a projection of how the Cadastre could be in 2014.
From this appeared a document of philosophical foundation that for many today might seem too obvious, however we talk about 1994, time when the initiative began and was published in 1998. For 1994 was just a promise Windows 95, we used Windows 3.11 for groups, AutoCAD R13 of that simulation of windows that did not like so much before the habit of dark screen of the R12, Microstation SE on a classic Clipper Ustation executing on exuberant but expensive Intergraph equipment; free software was a fallacy of nerds and the Internet worked from so-called portals such as Yahoo, Lycos, Excite and Altavista, which had to be accessed from an Internet cafe or with the chirp of a modem connected to the landline.
To avoid the risk of appearing proposals from a crystal ball, the exercise had to be based on the best existing practices and with visionary approaches to where the cadastral issue would evolve in terms of processes, tools, scope and linkage of actors linked to the territory.
The 6 2014 Cadastre declarations.
1. Complete situation of the territory including public law and restrictions
This approach led to the conventional Cadastre ceasing to only see a specific part of reality, under a biased logic as only to register the formality or to be prioritized over the fiscal. This implies that the cadastre centers its role on "the facts", with the photograph of how things are in the territory, seeking to keep up-to-date information on formality and informality. Additionally, the concept of completeness, so that spatial objects that are between the boundaries of the properties, such as streets, river beds, beaches, etc. they can be modeled on the same logic as a property on a continuous reality, avoiding that in the future the properties continue to request re-measurements that enter areas of public use.
Another scope of this statement is the linking of non-property data, which affects the domain, use, occupation or disposition of the properties. It implies that a spatial data infrastructure that provides services with data such as protected areas, risk areas, land use plans, etc., includes rules so that spatial relationships with the properties are reflected as affectations that are visible in formal advertising. or material at the time an official must make a grade or grant a license. In the ISO-19152 standard, this declaration simplifies the relationships of the interested parties regarding the reality of the territory in the two second relations of the acronym RRR (Rights, Restrictions, Responsibilities) and these "non-property" data are called legal territorial objects.
Just in this same line, the other 5 statements were raised in that 2014 Cadastral document promoted by the FIG in 1998. The template example shown on the right has that logic of a file administrative folio Cadastral, with management of master data on the realities that could differ between institutions that have historically taken that data with different optics, ensuring interoperability and legal independence with a logic of master data management to strengthen the principle of legitimation:
- A unique national number generated in 36 base nomenclature,
- Their physical characteristics coming from the Cadastre, their legal characteristics coming from the formality / informality and alerts of irregularity, their normative characteristics and the interested parties.
- The alerts of procedures presented (filed) in different mission processes but that have not received resolution or withdrawal.
- Consistency alerts, for differences between physical and legal realities.
Below is the result of the LADM essence, such as:
- The extract of procedures based on actors integrated into the transaction process and which are of interest for reasons of priority of related procedures or for simple transparency before the citizen who is interested in acquiring a good.
- The results of the relations of law (recognized in a formal-inscribed way and also the non-formalized), with the possibility of seeing the tract of previous traditions, which appear as inactive but visible states.
- The results of the spatial effects of restriction / liability type.
If this information comes from the missionary systems of Cadastre, Registry, Regularization or Registry of Special Regime, each one can dedicate himself to optimizing his missionary reason and the citizen or user of a procedure can trust that this data is the last truth. From the Legal Reality tab could have a similar display of the logic of real folio with variants such as liens, mortgages or links to other records such as Mercantile, Intellectual, Security and similarly if you consult on the administrative reality objects would be seen legal territorial that also have interested parties in the affectation / restriction caused to the property of interest. At the level of governmental institutions this complete data should be visible without restrictions, if policies focused on transactional efficiency and rupture of cacicazgos between public institutions are approved, and the immediate actors to the citizen as the notary, municipality, urban curator or surveyor. Define what this can be in the open access to the citizen is just a matter of transparency and profitability policies, it could be free what is at the top (Master data), with the rest in a blurry and a shopping cart that facilitates generating an immediate certificate with the complete data.
2. No separation between maps and records
This statement is more than obvious, although for 1994 it was a dream, considering that the best known attempts saw a CAD stuck with a hyperlink to a record of the space base, and among the worst the shapefile where fields could not be created teachers for many to many relationships, such as lots with multiple owners or owners with multiple lots; consequently the name of an owner had to be repeated in as many records as it would appear in the territory ... without going into details of the implicit limitations with just 16 bits.
Undoubtedly, this statement marked interesting guidelines on the geospatial theme applied to land administration. Although it is worth remembering that the initial idea was to refer to "no separation between the Cadastre data and the Land Registry data" and not only "cadastral map - card".
This also gives weight to the interoperability and standardization of geographic data coming from other legislations that as "legal territorial objects" affect the use, domain or occupation of the properties; arriving at the classic logic of databases that expose services to spatial data infrastructures with policies and interoperability rules between models. Perhaps a winning theme in this was the maturity of OGC standards pushed by free software and reluctantly accepted by proprietary software.
3. The modeling will replace the cadastral maps
The best exercise of this was materialized in the ISO-19152 standard, in order to consider the simplicity of the relations (RRR) between the classes that constitute the physical reality (People, topography), the modeled reality (Administrative unit, spatial unit) and sources of information recording (Source).
It sounds easy to say, and the graphic on the right seems to be simple. Although taking that to an ISO for its implementation made it more complex than what was expected in the initial need. The first effort called Core Cadastre Domain Model (CCDM), which was later called LADM, ended up becoming an ISO in 2012.
And in case some think that an ISO might be unnecessary, we who read Cadastro 2014 in those first years know that a semantics regulation was necessary - and still remains a challenge. The first readings generated confusion from the headlines and terms, especially for those who are leguleyos of semantics and who prefer to question rather than contextualize by writing a glossary. As an example, the word “cadastre - cadastre” was not considered to translate because for contexts such as Holland, the Cadastre is the Registry; when they take it to the standard they call it "land administration" which then to Spanish sounds attractive as "land administration"; Given that this seems to be only the surface and not all of its relations, Aenor translates it as "Territorial Administration", which in many countries is a trite and vitiated term associated with institutional management. Other examples are the term "parcel" that for the Anglo-Saxons is immovable but that in the Spanish-speaking context is usually discriminatory of the rural and does not include the improvements as indicated by the civil codes.
Just that is what the ISO-19152 seeks, to standardize the semantics of the "domain". Although it suffers from a practical document that bases its philosophy and orients its implementation; considering that UML models are not easy to sell to decision makers who expect final results for the citizen.
Here it is convenient to clarify that correlation and difference between LADM and ISO-19152.
The LADM is born from a worldwide vision, about practices and trends 20 years in the future in the Land Administration. The LADM is in a certain way a philosophy.
The ISO 19152 standard results from a worldwide socialization, to standardize the semantics of the Land Administration. The ISO is a standard to apply the LADM philosophy.
On this issue of adoption there is a need to write, rather than an approach of UML models and adoption of technological optics for articles and presentations at events; It would be interesting to have a greater effort on results of adoption at the level of processes, systematization of experiences and good practices that facilitate the sale at the level of decision makers. For this case, there are examples such as Honduras, which adopted almost the entire LADM philosophy in its SURE-SINAP system, and without having embedded it in public policy, for the simple fact of being based on the CCDM since 2005 has allowed it to interesting continuity despite the instability that this country has lived in the last 15 years; or cases like Nicaragua that without showing the implementation of the standard, the entire SIICAR inference engine implies the adoption of almost a level of 2 compliance of the standard.
4. The cadastre in physical formats will be a thing of the past
As a consequence of this modeling and the re-thinking of physical formats, proposals arise that impact on aspects such as the cadastral nomenclature. In ancient times, the cadastral keys were sequences of up to 30 digits, where geographical identifiers and administrative characteristics were mixed; While it was romantic for users within the institution, for the end user they were cumbersome and unhelpful if most of those digits were a zero. As an example, those nomenclatures were included if the property was rural; if this happened to be considered urban his identity practically changed because the composite number was not the same. Much of that logic came from the handling of physical formats, because we remember that initially the urban-rural concept was associated with print sizes of the final maps, that for populated nuclei it was necessary to scale 1: 1,000 while for rural areas 1 scales: 5,000 or 1: 10,000.
Thinking in digital formats leads to break with these schemes, thinking about what adds value for the citizen who needs an easy number and modeling where a property must continue to maintain its identity despite the change of municipality by modification of the inter-municipal boundary, despite to change its formal -informal situation, despite changing its urban-rural characterization. Not that these fields are no longer necessary, but if they are in attribute tables, they can be changed at any time without the object changing its identity; unless, of course, the change implies modification of its geometry.
This also leads to more efficient identification methods, such as those used in systems such as passports, paperwork, vehicle license plates (to give an example). A number of 30 digits would be romantic; we could have there the color of the car, the number of doors it has, the number of wheels, the brand and possibly even the number of times its owner has had sex in the back seat; but the plate is small and few digits are occupied; the traffic policeman is of bad memory and he / she occupies to remember the number easily although the car goes to speed; and then it must be immutable in time while it is the same vehicle. From there arise methods can convert a number based on the 10 numeric digits (base 10) to a code of combinations of those ten numbers and the 26 letters of the alphabet (base 36);
An example of a 10 base conversion to 36 base is: 0311000226 would mean 555TB6. It means that with just 6 digits could support up to ten billion unique properties, maintaining the same size (6 digits). As automation it is possible to make this conversion and relationship against previous numbers; for the citizen the code is a short chain, internally with the code can be masked characteristics or simply a consecutive number at national level. To prove how this works, I suggest this google link.
5. Joint work between private and public companies
This trend has had a great impact on public-private partnership models, seeking to transfer to the private sector those aspects that are not a sustainable business for the public institution. In other years, the Cadastre made the complete uprising in the field, with brigades of people hired by the institution; today it is very easy to outsource that operation. Similarly, the digitalization and extract of data from physical records, allowing the private sector to perform those jobs that are "temporary" or at least if they are executed well only once, avoiding investment in equipment that becomes obsolete with the weather.
However, it is a challenge on which there is much to systematize in terms of graduality and risks. Transferring a front-office to the bank seems very easy and almost mandatory, but handing over the information requires another type of guarantees not only in terms of security but also in legal and administrative responsibility.
6. The investment in Cadastre will be recoverable
The article does not give for more, and we hope to touch it in a next edition. But basically this principle is based on the fact that the capture of information, migration from physical to digital or construction of a large system is done once. And it is done well. The subsequent update operation and its evolution should not require loans from international organizations, but should be in a matrix of re-investment of the resources generated from innovation in new products and services.
2034 Land Registry Declarations
For 2014 an evaluation is made of how the journey was, advances and new findings to consider what would come in the next 20 years.
In this review, we consider milestones that have impacted the information revolution on the cadastre, such as the spatial data bases and infrastructures, the intrinsic geolocation of society; similarly, visions that have given new interests to the Cadastre as Land Administration, Governance of the territory and what could be expected in the future with the simplification in mind.
Thus arise 6 new statements and 6 questions. Like Cadastre 2014, it is an interpretation based on the context of what is already happening. Some countries that have overcome elementary gaps will adopt some of these trends, because their stability and demand is already demanding something more in their market; this will radiate in others that could save a shortcut of conventionalism. Others, because they have basic needs, will keep trying to fill the debt of the Cadastre 2014 declarations.
1. Precise mensura
The theme is so old, that Borges collects it from a source that dates from 1658:
In that Empire, the Art of Cartography achieved such Perfection that the map of a single Province occupied an entire City, and the map of the Empire, a whole Province. Over time, these Unconscionable Maps did not satisfy and the Cartographers Colleges raised a Map of the Empire, which was the size of the Empire and coincidentally coincided with it.
Less Addicted to the Study of Cartography, the Next Generations understood that this dilated Map was useless and not without Impiety they gave it to the Inclemencies of the Sun and the Winters. In the deserts of the West there are ruined Map Ruins, inhabited by Animals and by Beggars; throughout the country there is no other relic of the Geographical Disciplines.
It has always been a concern, especially in contexts where it is forgotten that it is more important to have all the territory with an attribute of controlled precision, than to have only one piece with ultra-precision. With the current technological possibilities, this statement states that this topic will be of general interest in the next 20 years; especially where the coverage of the territory has already been exceeded and which only interests to improve its accuracy.
2. Orientation objects for Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities
This is an evolution of what was already proposed in the 2014 Cadastre, with the variant that instead of being only spatial relations between the territorial territorial objects on the properties, they could be objects with their own extended models. An example advanced in time is the Special Regime Register that some countries already have; I insist, beyond being a relationship between layers, it leads to the application of registration techniques to these objects that guarantee their history, legitimacy, praying of the interested party and disposition when used in the qualification.
So, that a cone of approximation of the landing of an airport, happens to be modeled as what it is; a property more than public law, but with the particularity that overlaps many properties of private law, has an antecedent that is the law that constituted it, an owner that is the institution that operates it, effective date of its spatial geometry ( three-dimensional) and can only be modified through a transaction.
3. Ability to manage 3D
This is more than obvious. So far the three-dimensional has been representative, largely alphanumerically. It is possible to arrive at an apartment in horizontal property knowing its property code, the constructive stage, the tower number, the level and number of the apartment.
The trend of Digital Twins and SmartCities is leading to three-dimensional modeling mechanisms on software functionalities for asset management (Cadastre Indoors). Well, beyond that representation, Cadastre 2034 says that they can be managed; means, applying registry techniques so that their update is not only touching and deleting, but associated with life cycle transactions; they are born, their geometry is captured, they are modeled, they enter into operation with the daily processes of the human being, suffer mutations, and even die.
This 3D management capability will involve the adoption of new methods for capturing information, taking advantage of techniques that now exist as point clouds but with functionalities to facilitate the identification of simplified objects with infrastructure models and digital terrain models.
4. Real-time update
As long as the actors involved in the administration of the land are integrated to a master of the buildings, sequential flows that can be parallel will be unnecessary. As an example, the bank should be able to enter a mortgage without a notary as an intermediary; Total, is a user empowered before the system and is who has entered into a contract with the citizen, who authorizes the lien on your property. By far, an old-fashioned government will be able to place a registrar that is inside by clicking on a button, accepting the registration, until it gets tired of asking for licenses because its finger hurts, they will put it on the street and delegate the performance. to an entity empowered in the bank. The same logic is applicable to the other actors that now intervene in a transaction, such as the urban curator, the surveyor, the notary, the municipality, etc. As long as the actors are integrated, the update will be in real time and the competition will be the best services.
And then, the cadastre will be updated by the people, at the point where they make transactions.
This sounds somewhat crazy, but it is what happens with banking. Before, the bank issued a card (ja, as the tickets travel tickets), and it was necessary to go to the bank to withdraw money, then with that money buy, and if we had more we could go to deposit the bank or the can of milk under the bed. Today you open a bank account, and they give you a debit card and a password to manage on the Internet; you no longer withdraw in the bank, but in a cashier; your account is updated in real time when you make purchases in any business, online or transfer to third parties from your mobile while you are in the taxi.
The trend points there, that the user enters his account of the National Property Registry, and see there the real estate he has, if he wants to mortgage he can do it directly with the bank, if he wants to sell it he can do it directly, if he wants to manage a building license or an operating permit ... as it happens in the bank !. "Like Uber," this cannot be stopped by archaic cadaster-registry officials, not even notarial guilds. Simply the need of the market; to the extent that processes are standardized, the security and completeness of the information is strengthened; Disruptive business models will be merged with citizen-based solutions as a priority.
In this sense, processes that for now operate separately may converge, such as the real estate market (leases and sales) where B2B schemes such as AirBnb are killing the conventional model with a global reach self-managed by the end user; dying on the way the real estate agent, the lawyer who makes the contract, the appraiser who makes the study of economic capacity, the company that guarantees the insurance and above all the state that is costing to take out the tax.
It will also happen that property registration systems will be unified, to a register of "goods available for marketing", this applies to situations such as movable assets (vehicles), intellectual goods, mercantile goods (companies, shares), under an equivalence of « marketable securities ». For this, technologies as BlockChain and artificial intelligence should take advantage of intelligent contracts, in the logic of a digital twin object of physical reality with its cryptocurrency equivalent, to the extent that securitization is guaranteed in a registry where the government no longer has a candle.
And then, the cadastre-registry will be updated in real time as it already happens in other environments of everyday life.
It is also a matter of «humanization of the urgency that the Cadastral-Registry Registry meet a great need in the world». That is why the question: Is the Conventional Cadastre ready to meet in cost, time and traceability the need for an 70% of the population that lacks property rights? And we do not mean to make a recognition of the territory in 50 years, but in maximum record times of 6 years; although for this we must break the paradigms of the current flow of the cadastral-registration process, focusing on what adds value to the Land Administration chain.
We refer therefore to this aspect associated with this statement is the global need to register people who do not have an identification recognized by an official system, the properties that have not been registered and the list of rights that these people exercise over this land. This, not to mention that in the already registered there is a terrible outdated informality. Getting to solve this problem in the next 20 years implies rethinking disruptive methods that allow reduction of time, costs and greater participation of the population.
5. Global and interoperable Cadastre
Just that. Standardization motivated by the market, with universal object identifier. And to the dumpster the code of 30 digits that changes every time the property is filled with forest.
6. Ability to manage ecological borders
This implies the mapping of intangible objects, such as a nature reserve whose interest is international, a reserve of corals in the sea.
Questions of probable future roles of the Cadastre
With Cadastre 2034 also poses problems of global interest, in which it could be that Catastro intervenes, and that if so, would mark new paradigms for the management of holistic information hubs in a global environment increasingly connected. These questions are:
1. Land grabbing Will the Cadastre play a role in the registration of this information?
2. Food safety. Will there be interest in associating to the objects of the territory their characteristics and relation with the human being on the use, access and availability of the right to food?
3. Climate change. Will there be interest in the registration of rights with vulnerability dependencies associated with climate change?
4. Crowd Cadastre. What can and will not be possible in a collaborative cadastre?
5. Green cadastre Right on ecological borders?
6. Global cadastre. What infrastructure will be needed for a global Cadastre?
FIG 2019 - Hanoi
Fit-for-purpose cadastre is like Uber. The geometers must be involved, because it will happen with or without us.