The administration of the Earth is, currently, one of the main challenges of the countries. It is not a new aspiration, because its function is more than explicit in the main articles of the constitution and the different laws that govern the relationship of the settlers with the public and private resources of the nation. However, there is an international tendency for the formation of national systems that consolidate a national policy in which the advantages offered by the technologies, the requirements of globalization and, of course, the demand of the inhabitants for the efficiency of the public services.
From a good source I have been informed that Colombia is currently in the process of adopting ISO 19152, known as Land Administration Domain Model. The LADM beyond being a standard of global applicability, is the result of the consensus of many specialists in property management, drawn from the study of how different countries in the world do it as a result of that statement of 1998 that said the replacement of the traditional cadastre schemes for the use of models. This is the main reason why the LADM can not be unknown by professionals linked to the earth sciences and in the case of Colombia, as is to be expected, it is not being seen in itself as a solution, but from a perspective of spatial semantics, as a facilitator for the implementation of a national policy for the administration not only of the rights of the land but in general of the different goods of the nation.
I mention the case of Colombia, because we will have to keep an eye on its progress, as an interesting exercise that will undoubtedly be visible beyond the Latin American context. In the first phase that has begun in the second semester of 2015, it has been demonstrated not only the challenge of aligning different institutions related to the management of the material and immaterial goods of the nation; The evident leadership and maturity that institutions such as the Agustín Codazzi Institute, the Superintendency of Notaries and Registry and the influence of international cooperation seeking to internationalize good practices also come to light.
Geofumar in the LADM seems to me an appropriate decision, given the challenges involved in mainstreaming the planning and unifying the actions of entities such as the Rural Property Formalization Program, the Land Restitution Unit, the INCODER Colombian Rural Development Institute and the cadastres decentralized that in some cases I think have better conditions than the national instance before the need to adapt to the changes.
International trends in land management.
I must insist that the Land Administration is not an unknown science for the majority of professionals in the Cadastre-Register-Territorial Planning sector; It will be new to understand the UML models on which the LADM standard is presented and the way to get it to materialize an institutional scheme that already exists and before functioning technological platforms. So, to complement this article, I rescue the value of the irreversible tendencies in the matter of Land Administration that have been presented in one of the workshops of the current phase and from which I can hardly comment that border on the edge of the obvious but that represent the main challenges of the Colombian process.
La decentralization of the information updating processes, from the central levels to the local governments, from an accountability perspective not only in terms of fiscal cadastre but also legal.
- Incorporation Transactional systems by which the operation of the tenure relations between the interested parties is controlled, including the government in the objects that represent rights of public interest. An interesting aspect of this trend is that centralization does not imply more bureaucratization, since it is complemented by the first trend, in which the operators of transactions are local governments, private entities and individuals by individuals; but operating on National control transactional systems.
- Use of El Databases with history of administrative and geometric data, modeled both on the storage of documentary sources and on spatial versioning. This implies not only doing territorial research or planning plans, but also modeling its extract in order to have an applicability on real property and with reference to its current version.
- Use of El Standardized data models Independently of technological platforms, adopting standards that conceptualize the logical model from which both the physical model and the processes come; Regardless of whether you use proprietary or free software.
- Model-oriented architecture, known in English as MDA (Model driven architecture). No simple aspect, because of the urgency of the human interface to feed data and the risk of dying in time without early victories that justify the costs of changing mentality.
- Integration of land rights, land use and territorial planning, simplified in relation Subject-Subject-Law, But extended to a scheme that allows to see the relation of rights beyond what the law defines explicitly and can be applicable to material and immaterial property.
- Vision of the Cadastre from an optics perspective Lifecycle, with the obligatory nature of thinking about the 3D, that although it is not an urgent visualization due to the inability to finalize the 2D coverage, it must be incorporated even at the administrative level due to the urban urgency of the horizontal property and the need to be ready for the 4D, not just from a Optics BIM But because the relationship with time only occupies automation.
- The orientation towards Simplicity and ease of use, which implies decriminalizing the World Bank's proposal to finalize the world's cadastre in the short term using the plot as an urgent but integrated basis to the property registry, relegating the accuracy when we have time -And silver-. By then we may realize that the rest of the world has done the OpenCadastreMap style.
- La Multidisciplinary integration of the people linked to the land administration, each one doing his own thing, in his system, but replicating in a model of exchange of data under interoperability standards. Of course, this implies not seeing technology as an end in itself but as a way to achieve an identified objective; It involves gradually adding actors, avoiding the dismissal of experience specialists due to their incompatibility with technology, but also enhancing the young resource to be ready to take over on the route that will surely take several years.
The challenge of Colombia with the LADM
I suggest as a mental exercise of general application, to follow up on what Colombia will do, which to be honest does not have it easy, but with the political will and persistence for the high goals of the nation sure will take advantage of the opportunities now Are presented -Who would like to have other countries- among which we can see:
- The incorporation of the public Law As one more record that expresses the cartographic richness and converts it into rights, restrictions and responsibilities of both public entities and private parties.
- The development of pilot projects Multipurpose cadastre, Under a vision of simplification of a cadastral data sheet by delegating responsibility for updating data.
- The formation of a Land management node Within the Colombian Spatial Data Infrastructure ICDE, as a model that goes beyond the provision of standardized data geoportals.
- The updating of methodologies that simplify the actions of local governments and dependence on core policies, especially with regard to Cadastral valuation, but also the opening to lifting methods, simplifying the «cool»Of the complexity and precision due to the preeminence of keeping data updated.
- The tenacity Battle with the polygon, In the face of the country's inevitable scenario of using ESRI almost as a geomatic version of God and the stubbornness of ISO-19152 fumes for keeping the bow-node as the only primitive way of explaining the universe.
- The integration of Registration and Registration in a single transaction system, in which it is possible to see not only who is a natural / legal / public person but also the consolidated rights in the matter of real property, its geometry and legal and administrative charges. This challenge, beyond the institutional transformation -It is not urgent- implies a change of mentality in the global vision of the registries, as a responsibility of the state, beyond the urgent intervention of projects with good intention but with the aspiration to converge in public policies of national interest.
- The international visibility of the LADM Bananized To the particularities of what the Colombians have done for many years.
The wish list is endless and in a good sense of the real, even utopian. But that same feeling happened to anyone 14 years ago when his mentor gave him two documents that will have changed his way of seeing the world; especially if these documents were the draft Proposal Cadastre 2014 of the FIG and the abstract by Chrit Lemmen «Core Cadastral Domain Model«.